The uppermost soil beneath the Site consists primarily of alluvial sands and gravels derived from a volcanic source. These deposits are of Quaternary age (less than 2 million years before present) and are thus referred to as Qa. The Qa is typically on the order of 50 feet thick at the Site,

Well-Bore Log

A detailed description (and diagram) of all underground features (depth, thickness, type of formation) observed during the drilling of a well.


Abandoned, idled, or under used industrial and commercial facilities/sites where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination.

Fence Diagrams

Fence diagrams effectively display several intersecting cross sections in perspective view.

Geographic Information System (GIS)

A geographic information system is a system for management, analysis, and display of geographic knowledge, which is represented through maps.

Geologic Cross-Sections

Geologic cross-sections are diagrams in which geologic formations and other geologic information are shown in a vertical section.


Geophysics is a non-invasive method to investigate what is happening below the ground to improve the quality of knowledge of subsurface condtions at a site.

Monitoring Well

A well used to obtain water quality samples and measure groundwater levels.

Muddy Creek formation

The Muddy Creek formation underlies the Qa. The Muddy Creek formation underlies much of the Las Vegas Valley and is more than 2,000 feet thick in places. The upper portion beneath the Site is referred to as TMCf. The soil of the TMCf underlying the Site is typically fine-grained (sandy silt and clayey silt), although layers with increased sand content are also sporadically encountered.


As the TMCf was eroded, broad channels were incised into its surface and filled with the relatively coarse-grained alluvium, resulting in the development of paleochannels. These paleochannels serve as potential transmissive paths for chemical transport.